What is the relationship between dBi (isotropic antenna reference) and dBd (dipole antenna reference)?
dBi is the gain measured in relation to an isotropic antenna (an antenna that radiates the same energy in all directions).
It is the gain indicated in the specifications given for our antennas.
dBd is the gain measured with a dipole.
The relationship between dBi (ref. isotropic antenna) and dBd (ref. dipole) is the following:
dBi= dBd + 2.3
dBd = dBi - 2.3
How many dBd in a 16 dBi gain antenna?
dBd = 16 - 2.3 = 14.7 dBd
and vice versa: how many dBi in 22 dBd?
dBi = 22 + 2.3 = 24.3 dBi